Arizona Wildlife Conservation Strategy

Central Arizona Springsnails COA

In central Arizona, there are five described species of Pyrgulopsis springsnails (Page, Montezuma Well, Fossil, Verde Rim, and Brown) and two undescribed Pyrgulopsis springsnails (Bradshaw Mountains and Cold Water Springs). These freshwater mollusks are managed by multiple land management agencies across several drainage basins in Yavapai and Gila counties.

Conservation Goals

  • Implement conservation actions in the Central Arizona Springsnails Strategic Conservation Plan (a CCA) to maintain and improve the status and distribution of these native snails and reduce threats to their populations and habitat.


Primary Threats

3. Climate Change and Severe Weather

3.1: Habitat shifting and alteration
3.3: Temperature extremes

5. Disease, Pathogens, and Parasites

5: Disease, Pathogens, and Parasites

8. Invasive and Other Problematic Species

8.1: Invasive non-native species

9. Natural System Modifications

9.1: Fire and fire suppression
9.2: Dams and water management

Potential Conservation Actions

1. Land and Water Protection

1.1: Site/area protection
  • Conserve a variety of habitats that support healthy populations of fish and wildlife as climate changes.
  • Protect and/or improve springsnail habitat with livestock exclosure fencing, add more hard substrates to springheads and spring channels, or modify existing springboxes to improve periphyton growth with more sunlight exposure.

2. Land and Water Management

2.1: Site/area management
  • Restore and maintain diverse habitats to support broad species assemblages that account for range shifts.
2.2: Invasive/problematic species control
  • Eradicate, control and/or prevent introduction and spread of invasive and/or other problematic plants (Himalayan blackberry), animals (New Zealand mudsnail and crayfish), and pathogens ( chytrid fungus).
2.3: Habitat and natural process restoration
  • Implement projects focused on improving the quality of altered systems creating suitable habitat and/or habitat features for wildlife.
  • Maintain natural fire regimes on the landscape through prescribed burns and natural fire management.

Habitats Present

Strategy Species


Arizona Toad, Lowland Leopard Frog


Common Black Hawk, Cooper's Hawk, Golden Eagle, Western Yellow-billed Cuckoo, Arizona Bell's Vireo, Brown-crested Flycatcher, Western Wood-Pewee, Woodhouse's Scrub-Jay


Bradshaw Mountain Springsnail, Brown Springsnail, Fossil Springsnail, Monarch, Montezuma Well Amphipod, Montezuma Well Springsnail, Page Springsnail, Tule Mesa Springsnail, Verde Rim Springsnail


Allen's Lappet-browed Bat, Arizona Myotis, Big Free-tailed Bat, Fringed Myotis, Hoary Bat, Western Red Bat


Sonora Mud Turtle


See Associated Aquatic COAs for fish species.

Protected Areas and Other Areas of Conservation Value

  • Page Springs and Bubbling Ponds Fish Hatcheries
  • Montezuma Well National Monument

Potential Partners

  • National Parks Service
  • Tonto National Forest
  • US Fish and Wildlife Service
  • Private Landowners

Relevant Conservation Plans

Associated Aquatic COAs