Arizona Wildlife Conservation Strategy

Grand Wash Cliffs North COA

This COA comprises a portion of Grand Canyon - Parashant National Monument on the remote Arizona Strip. Habitats largely comprise Mohave desertscrub, including extensive landscapes dominated by Joshua trees, some of which have been severely damaged by wildfire. This area also includes several springs in tributaries to Grand Wash. These are home to the Grand Wash springsnail, known from three springs (Grapevine Springs, Whiskey Spring, and Tassi Spring), and to relict leopard frog in Pakoon Springs and Tassi Spring. There is also a relict population of speckled dace in Tassi Spring.

Conservation Goals

  • Implement conservation actions in the BLM Statewide Springsnail Strategic Conservation Plan (a CCA) to maintain and improve the status and distribution of these snails and reduce threats to their populations and habitat.
  • Continue to implement conservation actions in the relict leopard frog conservation agreement, assessment and strategy, including management of natural spring systems.
  • Implement the Mojave desert tortoise recovery plan, and reduce threats to their habitats, including high-severity wildfires.


Primary Threats

1. Agriculture

1.2: Wood and pulp operations

3. Climate Change and Severe Weather

3.1: Habitat shifting and alteration
3.2: Droughts

7. Human Intrusions and Disturbance

7.1: Recreational activities
7.3: Work and other activities

8. Invasive and Other Problematic Species

8.1: Invasive non-native species

9. Natural System Modifications

9.1: Fire and fire suppression

Potential Conservation Actions

1. Land and Water Protection

1.1: Site/area protection
  • Acquire land and water rights and pursue conservation agreements and easements in and around COAs and other priority areas.

2. Land and Water Management

2.2: Invasive/problematic species control
  • Control the spread of invasive and problematic species, particularly rangeland plant species and feral burros.
  • Continue monitoring for bullfrog presence and implement adaptive management measures as needed.
2.3: Habitat and natural process restoration
  • Implement projects focused on improving the quality of altered systems creating suitable habitat and/or habitat features for wildlife.

3. Species Management

3.1: Management of specific species of concern
  • Conduct research that includes surveying and monitoring species and habitats to determine status and conditions so that resources can be appropriately allocated where they are most needed.
3.2: Species recovery
  • Continuously evaluate the effectiveness of management actions, adapting the approach as necessary for strategy species, including relict leopard frog, Mohave desert tortoise, and Grand Wash springsnails.

4. Education and Awareness

4.3: Awareness and communication
  • Engage with wildlife enthusiasts through diverse outreach programs to cultivate an interest in and appreciation for wildlife and natural areas.
  • Increase awareness of effects of specific threats (ie. climate change, invasive and problematic species, illegal collection of reptiles and amphibians) on wildlife species and habitats with an emphasis on how the threats can be reduced.

6. Livelihood, Economic and Other Incentives

6.4: Conservation payments and programs
  • Actively seek opportunities to partner with Arizona agricultural producers and private landowners on a variety of habitat enhancements that benefit both livestock and wildlife.

7. External Capacity Building

7.2: Alliance and partnership development
  • Provide technical assistance to landowners interested in enhancing wildlife habitat on their property.

Habitats Present

Strategy Species


Relict Leopard Frog


American Peregrine Falcon, Black-chinned Sparrow, California Condor, Common Black Hawk, Costa's Hummingbird, Ferruginous Hawk, Golden Eagle, Gray Vireo, Juniper Titmouse, LeConte's Thrasher, Lucy's Warbler, Pinyon Jay, Sage Thrasher, Swainson's Hawk, Western Burrowing Owl, Yellow Warbler


Grand Wash Springsnail


American Pronghorn, Arizona Myotis, California Leaf-nosed Bat, Cave Myotis, Greater Western Mastiff Bat, Kit Fox, Little Pocket Mouse, Mexican Free-tailed Bat, Pale Townsend's Big-eared Bat, Pocketed Free-tailed Bat, Spotted Bat, Stephen's Woodrat, Western Red Bat, Yuma Myotis


Mojave Desert Tortoise, Desert Night Lizard


See Associated Aquatic COAs for fish species.

Protected Areas and Other Areas of Conservation Value

  • Grand Canyon-Parashant National Monument
  • Pakoon Springs
  • Tassi Spring
  • Whiskey Spring

Potential Partners

  • Bureau of Land Management
  • National Parks Service
  • Arizona Desert Bighorn Sheep Society
  • Arizona Department of Fire and Forestry Management
  • Natural Resources Conservation Service
  • Private Landowners
  • Arizona State Land Department
  • Arizona Antelope Foundation
  • Mule Deer Foundation
  • Arizona Mule Deer Organization
  • Arizona Deer Association

Relevant Conservation Plans

Associated Aquatic COAs